Monday, May 3, 2010


Pulitzer Prize

The Pulitzer Prize is a

U.S. award for

achievements in

newspaper journalism,

literature and musical

composition. It was

established by


publisher Joseph

Pulitzer and is

administered by Columbia University in New York City.

Prizes are awarded yearly in twentyone

categories. In twenty of

these, each winner receives a certificate and a US$10,000 cash

award. The winner in the public service category of the

journalism competition is awarded a gold medal, which always

goes to a newspaper, although an individual may be named in

the citation.


The prize was established by Joseph Pulitzer, a journalist and

newspaper publisher, who founded the St. Louis PostDispatch

and bought the New York World. Pulitzer left money to Columbia

University upon his death in 1911. A portion of his bequest was

used to found the university's journalism school in 1912. The

first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded on June 4, 1917, and they are

now announced each April. Recipients are chosen by an

independent board.

Entry and prize consideration

The Pulitzer Prize does not automatically evaluate all applicable

works in the media, but only those that have been entered with

a $50 entry fee (one per desired entry category). Entries must

also fit in at least one of the specific prize categories, and cannot

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simply gain entrance on the grounds of having general literary or

compositional properties. Works can also only be entered into a

maximum of two prize categories, regardless of their properties.


The current Pulitzer Prize category definitions in the 2008

competition, in the order they are awarded, are:

· Public Service – for a distinguished example of

meritorious public service by a newspaper through the use

of its journalistic resources, which may include editorials,

cartoons, and photographs, as well as reporting. Often

thought of as the grand prize, the Public Service award is

given to the newspaper, not to individuals, though

individuals are often mentioned for their contributions.

· Breaking News Reporting – for a distinguished example

of local reporting of breaking news.

· Investigative Reporting – for a distinguished example of

investigative reporting by an individual or team, presented

as a single newspaper article or series.

· Explanatory Reporting – for a distinguished example of

explanatory newspaper reporting that illuminates a

significant and complex subject, demonstrating mastery of

the subject, lucid writing, and clear presentation.

· Local Reporting – for a distinguished example of local

newspaper reporting that illuminates significant issues or


· National Reporting – for a distinguished example of

newspaper reporting on national affairs.

· International Reporting – for a distinguished example of

newspaper reporting on international affairs, including

United Nations correspondence.

· Feature Writing – for a distinguished example of

newspaper feature writing giving prime consideration to

high literary quality and originality.

· Commentary – for distinguished commentary.

· Criticism – for distinguished criticism.

· Editorial Writing – for distinguished editorial writing, the

test of excellence being clarity of style, moral purpose,

sound reasoning, and power to influence public opinion in

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what the writer conceives to be the right direction.

· Editorial Cartooning – for a distinguished cartoon or

portfolio of cartoons published during the year,

characterized by originality, editorial effectiveness, quality

of drawing, and pictorial effect.

· Breaking News Photography, previously called Spot

News Photography – for a distinguished example of

breaking news photography in black and white or color,

which may consist of a photograph or photographs, a

sequence, or an album.

· Feature Photography – for a distinguished example of

feature photography in black and white or color, which may

consist of a photograph or photographs, a sequence, or an


Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize is a


international monetary

prize. The award was

established by the 1895

will and estate of

Swedish chemist and

inventor Alfred Nobel. It

was first awarded in

Physics, Chemistry,

Physiology or

Medicine, Literature,

and Peace in 1901. An

associated prize, The

Sveriges Riksbank Prize

in Economic Sciences in

Memory of Alfred Nobel,

was instituted by Sweden's central bank in 1968 and first awarded

in 1969. The Nobel Prizes in the specific disciplines (Physics,

Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature) and the Prize in

Economics, which is commonly identified with them, are widely

regarded as the most prestigious award one can receive in those

fields. The Nobel Peace Prize conveys social prestige and is often

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politically controversial.

Nomination and selection

Compared with some other prizes, the Prize nomination and

selection process is long and rigorous. This is a key reason why the

Prizes have grown in importance over the years to become the most

important prizes in their field.

The Nobel laureates are selected by their respective Nobel

Committees. For the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry and Economics, a

committee consists of five members elected by The Royal Swedish

Academy of Sciences; for the Prize in Literature, a committee of

four to five members of the Swedish Academy; for the Prize in

Physiology or Medicine, the committee consists of five members

selected by The Nobel Assembly, which consists of 50 members

elected by Karolinska Institutet; for the Peace Prize, the Norwegian

Nobel Committee consists of five members elected by the

Norwegian Storting (the Norwegian parliament). In its first stage,

several thousand people are asked to nominate candidates. These

names are scrutinized and discussed by experts in their specific

disciplines until only the winners remain. This slow and thorough

process is arguably what gives the prize its importance. Despite

this, there have been questionable awards and questionable

omissions over the prize's centurylong


Ramon Magsaysay Award

The Ramon Magsaysay Award is an

award designed to perpetuate his

example of integrity in government,

courageous service to the people,

and pragmatic idealism within a

democratic society. The Ramon

Magsaysay Award is often

considered Asia's Nobel Prize.

The prize was established in April

1957 by the trustees of the

Rockefeller Brothers Fund (RBF)

based in New York City with the

concurrence of the Philippine

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government. The prize was created to commemorate Ramon

Magsaysay, the late president of the Philippines.

Every year the Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation gives away

prizes to Asian individuals and organizations for achieving

excellence in their respective fields. The awards are given in six


· Government Service

· Public Service

· Community Leadership

· Journalism, Literature and Creative Communication Arts

· Peace and International Understanding

· Emergent Leadership

In May 1957, seven prominent Filipinos were named to the founding

board of trustees of the Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation

(RMAF), the nonprofit

corporation tasked with implementing the

awards program.

The RMAF recognizes and honors individuals and organizations in

Asia regardless of race, creed, sex, or nationality, which have

achieved distinction in their respective fields and have helped others

generously without anticipating public recognition. The awards

have traditionally been given in five categories: government

service; public service; community leadership; journalism,

literature, and creative communication arts; and peace and

international understanding.

In the 2000 Magsaysay Awards Presentation Ceremonies, the

Foundation announced the creation of a sixth Award category,

Emergent Leadership. This new Award category was established

with the support of a grant from the Ford Foundation. The Ramon

Magsaysay Award for Emergent Leadership honors "individuals,

forty years of age and below, doing outstanding work on issues of

social change in their communities, but whose leadership is not yet

broadly recognized outside of these communities." An award in this

category was given for the first time in 2001.

Out of 254 Awards given to Individuals till 2008, 47 were bagged by

Indians, 39 were bagged by Philippines, 23 were bagged by

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Japanese and the rest were shared by people from other countries

in Asia

Man Booker Prize

Man Booker Prize an annual prize of £50,000 (originally £20,000 )

for a work of fiction by a living British, Irish, or Commonwealth

writer. Great Britain's premier literary award, it was originally

known as the Booker Prize and in 1969 was underwritten by the

British fooddistribution

company Booker PLC, now part of The Big

Food Group PLC. In 2002 the Man Group, a British hedge fund,

became a cosponsor

of the award, which was renamed. Recipients

of the award have included V. S. Naipaul , Nadine Gordimer , Iris

Murdoch , Salman Rushdie , A. S. Byatt , J. M. Coetzee , Margaret

Atwood , Peter Carey , and Ian McEwan . In 2004 an additional

award, the Man Booker International Prize, was introduced. An

award of £60,000 given for overall achievement in fiction, it is

presented every two years to a living author of any nationality

whose fiction is either written in English or is generally available in

English translation. It was first given (2005) to the Albanian novelist

Ismail Kadare . In 2007 yet another award was announced, the Man

Asian Literary Prize. Initiated by the Hong Kong International

Literary Festival Ltd. with the financial support of the Man Group, it

aims to bring exciting new Asian writers to the attention of the

world literary community, to encourage the translation and

publication in English of such Asian works, and to emphasize Asia's

increasing role in world literature. The prize awards $10,000 to the

winning writer and $3,000 to the translator.

History and Administration

The prize was originally known as the BookerMcConnell

Prize after

the company BookerMcConnell

began sponsoring the event in

1968, and became commonly known as the "Booker Prize" or simply

"the Booker". When administration of the prize was transferred to

the Booker Prize Foundation in 2002, the title sponsor became the

investment company Man Group, which opted to retain "Booker" as

part of the official title of the prize. The foundation is an

independent registered charity funded by the entire profits of

Booker Prize Trading Ltd., of which it is the sole shareholder. The

prize money awarded with the Booker Prize was originally £21,000,

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and was subsequently raised to £50,000 in 2002 under the

sponsorship of the Man Group.

Booker facts and statistics

· Each publisher's imprint may submit two titles. In addition,

previous winners of the prize and those who have been

shortlisted in the previous ten years are automatically

considered. Books may also be called in: publishers can

make written representations to the judges to consider

titles in addition to those already entered. In the 21st

century the average number of books considered by the

judges has been approximately 130.

· The list of books making the longlist was first released in

2001. In 2003 there were 23 books on the longlist, in 2002

there were 20 and in 2001 there were 24.

· Including authors with dual citizenship, the United Kingdom

has the most winners of the prize at 25. Second is

Australia with six winners; Ireland and India each have

four winners.

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