Sunday, May 2, 2010


Business GK


'World's biggest book'–"One Look at Mexico, Colors and Flavors"–has its pages made with DuPont™

Tyvek®. The book's dimensions will be two meters high by two meters wide.

E.I. du Pont was the younger of two sons born to Paris watchmaker Pierre Samuel du Pont who, by the

1780s, had become a noted political economist, a rising government official, and an advocate of free trade.

E.I. du Pont studied explosives production techniques with the famous chemist Antoine Lavoisier.

In 1791, after the onset of the French Revolution, he gave up powder-making to assist in his father's small

printing and publishing business.

The du Ponts' moderate political views proved a liability in revolutionary France. In 1797 a mob ransacked

their printing shop and they were briefly imprisoned. In late 1799 they fled to America.

E.I. du Pont established his first gunpowder mill on the Brandywine River in 1802 in the US.

Fabrikoid was one of DuPont's first non-explosives products and was marketed as artificial leather.

When General Motors faced bankruptcy in 1920, Pierre left DuPont to create a decentralized management

structure to cope effectively with GM's widely varying products and markets.

Cellophane inaugurated a consumer revolution. Its sanitary wrapping enabled producers and retailers to

attractively display their products and allowed consumers to see what they were buying. DuPont scientist

William Hale Charch developed a moisture-proofing system for cellophane in 1927. Moisture-proof

cellophane quickly transformed food packaging and marketing worldwide.

Neoprene was the first major product to emerge from DuPont's fundamental research program led by

Wallace Carothers. DuPont marketed its discovery in 1931 under the trade name Duprene®.

DuPont introduced non-CFC substitutes for Freon®–Suva® refrigerants and Dymel® propellants in 1990.

The 1999 acquisition of Pioneer Hi-Bred International marked a major step in DuPont's overall strategy to

integrate agricultural biology into the company's science and technology base.

Solae™ brand soy protein made by made by DuPont Protein Technologies is a complete protein derived

from soybeans and is used as an ingredient in a wide variety of food, beverage and meat products.



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Inditex is one of the worlds largest fashion distributors, with nine sales

formats -Zara, Pull and Bear, Massimo Dutti, Bershka, Stradivarius,

Oysho, Zara Home and Uterqüe–boasting 4.074 stores in 71 countries.

In 1975, the first Zara store was opened on a central street in A Coruña


In 1974, Amancio Ortega Gaona, chairman and founder of Inditex,

begins his business activities in the textile manufacturing sector

Zara has stores specialized in junior fashion called Kiddy's Class


Global Flagship Brands


created for the

Prince of Wales

in 1873






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Sandy Lerner Len Bosack

Profile: Professor Muhammad Yunus

The Grameen Bank is a microfinance organization and community development bank started in Bangladesh

that makes small loans known as microcredit or 'grameencredit'.

Professor Muhammad Yunus, the bank's founder, earned a doctorate in economics from Vanderbilt

University in the US. The origin of Grameen Bank can be traced back to 1976 when Yunus, a Fulbright

scholar and Professor at University of Chittagong, launched a research project to examine the possibility

of designing a credit delivery system to provide banking services targeted to the rural poor.

Yunus was inspired during the terrible Bangladesh famine of 1974 to make a small loan of $27 to a group of

42 families so that they could create small items for sale without the burdens of predatory lending.

Grameen Bank is best known for its system of solidarity lending. The Bank also incorporates a set of values

embodied in Bangladesh by the Sixteen Decisions. As a result of the Sixteen Decisions, Grameen

borrowers have been encouraged to adopt positive social habits. One such habit includes educating children

by sending them to school.

Universal Postal Union

The Universal Postal Union is an international organization based at Berne,

Switzerland that coordinates postal policies among member nations.

Prior to the establishment of the UPU, a country had to conclude a separate

postal treaty with each other country that it wished to carry international mail to

or from. Heinrich von Stephan, Royal Prussian and later German Minister for

Posts found the Universal Postal Union.

It was created in 1874, under the name "General Postal Union", as a result of the Treaty of Berne signed

on 9 October 1874. In 1878, the name was changed to "Universal Postal Union".



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International Telegraph Union, founded in Paris by 20 European countries in 1865, is the oldest

international organisation.

Telegraph Journal was renamed Telecommunication Journal

and is now published under the name ITU News.

On 24 May 1844, Samuel Morse sent his first public message

over a telegraph line between Washington and Baltimore, and through that simple act, ushered in the

telecommunication age.

Historical figures in telecommunications

Twelve years before the first artificial earth satellite Sputnik-1 was launched by the USSR, Arthur C. Clarke

proposed in an article published in Wireless World in 1945, the use of geostationary satellites for worldwide

radio coverage.

Guglielmo Marconi managed to transmit by radio a message across the English Channel in

1897. In 1899 he sent signals across the Atlantic Ocean from Cornwall, England to Signal

Hill, Newfoundland. By 1907 a transatlantic wireless service had been established and in

1909 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics.

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, educated at the University of Berlin, taught physics at the

technical school in Karlsruhe and at the University in Bonn in 1889. Hertz proved

that electricity can be transmitted in electromagnetic waves. His experiments

with electromagnetic waves led to the development of the wireless telegraph and

the radio.

From 1947, academician Sergei Pavlovich Korolev directed the design of rockets

in the USSR which led to the launch of Sputnik-1, the first artificial earth satellite,

on 4 October 1957. Korolev also directed the development of a number of satellites

including the Molniya-1 series of telecommunications satellites.



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Laurence K. Marshall and Vannevar Bush, along with scientist Charles G. Smith, founded Raytheon

Company in Cambridge, Mass., as the American Appliance Company in 1922.

From its early days as a maker of radio tubes, its adaptation of World War II radar technology to invent

microwave cooking, and its development of the first guided missile, Raytheon has successfully built upon

its pioneering tradition to become a global technology leader.

In 1925, the year American Appliance Company began to take off, an Indiana company made it known that it

held prior claim to the American Appliance Company name.

Because of the success of the Raytheon radio tube, company officials at that time elected to extend the use

of the name to describe the entire organization, and the company's name was officially changed to Raytheon

Manufacturing Company. "Ray" comes from "rai," an Old French word that means "a beam of light," while

"theon" comes from the Greek and means "from the gods."

'Technology Today' is a quarterly magazine published by Raytheon

Technology Leadership

Magnetron Tubes: Raytheon engineer Percy L. Spencer

Shipboard Radar: Raytheon's Fritz Gross developed the microwave SG radar.

Microwave Cooking: Raytheon's discovery of microwave cooking in 1945 was initially an accident, but its

development, like so many others, can be credited to Percy Spencer.

In 1947, Raytheon demonstrated the world's first microwave oven and called it a "Radarange," the winning

name in an employee contest.

Guided Missiles: In 1948, Raytheon became the first company to develop a missile guidance system

that could hit a flying target. Its missiles included Lark, Sparrow air- to-air missile and the Hawk ground-toair


NASA Communications Systems: Apollo XI had been sent aloft by a Saturn booster rocket. Raytheon had

designed and manufactured the computer that guided the space vehicle in their historic journey.

Patriot Missile System: It was the 1991 Persian Gulf War that put Raytheon's Patriot to the real test of

military conflict when upgraded Patriot Advanced Capability Phase 2 (PAC-2) missiles successfully

intercepted and destroyed Iraqi Scud missiles fired at Israel and Saudi Arabia.



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Transistors: The transistor, a device composed of semiconductor material that amplifies a signal or opens or

closes a circuit, was originally conceived at Bell Labs in 1947 by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William


In 1948, Raytheon released the first commercially produced transistor, the CK703 point contact transistor.

In 1954, the Texas Instruments/Regency Electronics partnership released the first commercially

produced transistor radio, the Regency TR-1.


Over the years Raytheon has acquired businesses with impressive legacies of their own including:

Beechcraft; E-Systems; Texas Instruments' Defense Systems and Electronics business; and Hughes

Aircraft's Defense Electronics business.

1922: Raytheon is founded as the American Appliance Company, a maker of machinery, motors and


1930: Texas Instruments (TI) is founded as Geophysical Service, Inc. a provider of contract exploration

services to the petroleum industry.

1932: Hughes Aircraft is created as a division of the Hughes Tool Company, with a focus on military aircraft

research and design

1932: Beech Aircraft is established that same year.

1945: Texas Engineering and Manufacturing Company (TEMCO), precursor to E-Systems, is founded.

1940s: Missiles introduced include Raytheon's Lark Missile, Sparrow Missile, and Hawk; TI's Shrike Missile

and Hughes' Falcon Missile.

1947: Beech introduced the Model 35 Beech Bonanza, a

high-performance, single-engine, business airplane that's

still being made to this day.

1963: Hughes launched the first geosynchronous

communications satellite, enabling Americans to watch

live coverage of the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, a landmark in

global broadcasting.



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